Dependent and Independent Variables | Overview & Examples

Academic and research works are tenacious studies that include specifics. Therefore, you will come across various terms and phrases that you need to keep in mind while working around. Naturally, it can get overwhelming. However, once you understand the concept, the overall process becomes very easy to work with. This article will focus on dependent and independent variables and discuss what they are, how to determine dependent and independent variables and their uses in academic writing.


Dependent and Independent Variables | Overview & Examples

This brief guide discusses the dependent and independent variables of a research paper. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.

Academic and research works are tenacious studies that include specifics. Therefore, you will come across various terms and phrases that you need to keep in mind while working around. Naturally, it can get overwhelming. However, once you understand the concept, the overall process becomes very easy to work with. In this context, we will focus on dependent and independent variables. In this article, we will discuss what they are, how to determine dependent and independent variables and their uses in academic writing.

Dependent and independent variables

To understand dependent and independent variables well, you should understand the nature of research first. Research, especially scientific ones, mostly includes studying the consequences of one variable over another. Now, what exactly are these variables? These are simply factors that can have any given value.

In academic studies, these variables come together in the form of a cause-and-effect relationship, called dependent and independent variables. Dependent variables act as the effect in this relationship, and they vary heavily in the changes in the independent variable. The independent variable, on the other hand, is the cause, and its cause does not depend on other variables.

Together, these variables become the base of a study or research. In a basic concept, the independent variable of a study is the cause. Its value is independent of other variables in the study. However, the dependent variable of a study is the effect, which means, its value depends on changes in the independent variable.

Dependent and independent variables

How to determine dependent and independent variables

In research, determining the different variables can be confusing, especially if it is your first time. However, with time and understanding, it will be easier to determine them immediately.

Think of it in this way— the variable that you need to tinker with is the independent variable. The variable that changes because of the tinkering of the other variable is the dependent variable. That is why, in experimental research, you need to make changes to the independent variable to see the impact on the dependent variable.

Here are some examples for dependent and independent variables:

Research Question

Independent Variable(s)          

Dependent Variable(s)

Are elementary students more successful in online or face-to-face education?

The type of education

· Online education

· Face-to-face education

Elementary students’ success rates

What is the effect of burnout and job-related stress on district managers’ health-related quality of life?

· Burnout

· Job-related stress

District managers’ health-related quality of life

The third variable

Speaking of experimental research, there is another variable— the control variable. Unlike dependent or independent variables, this third type of variable is purposely controlled. That is, they are limited or made constant. The main reason behind this is because otherwise, they may affect the experiment. For example, you want to find out the effect of different fertilizers on the plant. Here, your controlled variable would be the amount of light and water received by the plant. The dependent factor would be the effect on the plant, and the independent factor would be the fertilizers. If you do not control these factors, your dependent factor may vary, thus disrupting your experiment.


By now, it is fairly clear that variables are an important part of the research. In fact, without variables, research would cease to exist. Therefore, understanding the various types of variables is important.

If you need us to make your manuscript shine, contact us unhesitatingly!

Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering manuscripts with proper tone, content, and style of academic writing, and also provide an upscale editing and proofreading service for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.

English manuscript formatting service

You can also avail of our assistance if you are looking for editors who can format your manuscript, or just check on the particular styles for the formatting task as per the guidelines provided to you, e.g., APA, MLA, or Chicago/Turabian styles. Best Edit & Proof editors and proofreaders provide all sorts of academic writing help, including editing and proofreading services, using our user-friendly website, and a streamlined ordering process.

Get a free quote for editing and proofreading now!

Visit our order page if you want our subject-area editors or language experts to work on your manuscript to improve its tone and style and give it a perfect academic tone and style through proper editing and proofreading. The process of submitting a paper is very easy and quick. Click here to find out how it works.

Our pricing is based on the type of service you avail of here, be it editing or proofreading. We charge on the basis of the word count of your manuscript that you submit for editing and proofreading and the turnaround time it takes to get it done. If you want to get an instant price quote for your project, copy and paste your document or enter your word count into our pricing calculator.

Dependent and independent variables

24/7 customer support | Live support

If you need support for editing and proofreading services, contact us. You can also e-mail us or use the 24/7 live chat module to get direct support. We have a 24/7 active live chat mode to offer you direct support along with qualified editors to refine and furbish your manuscript. Alternatively, you can text us through our WhatsApp business support line.

How to Write a Dissertation Methodology

Stay tuned for updated information about editing and proofreading services!

Follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn,  Facebook, Instagram, and Medium.

For more posts, click here. 

They Also Read

Academic Writing Plagiarism
What is Plagiarism | How to Avoid It

Understanding the common types of plagiarism will help us to comprehend the scope of the question and answer the question of ‘‘what is plagiarism’’. Some common examples of plagiarism are copying texts or ideas without referencing, incorrect referencing, without referring to someone else's sentence structure even if you change words.

Continue Reading
Academic Writing Academic Publishing
How to Submit A Journal Article

Submitting a journal article can be a nerve-wracking experience. After all, this piece of work requires hours of research, analysis, and work poured into it. Therefore, you would wish for it to be acknowledged, selected, and published. This guide will give you some crucial answers, so go ahead and take a read. This way, you can ensure that your journal submission is devoid of any hassle.

Continue Reading
Academic Writing
Top 5 Mistakes Students Make in Academic Writing

Whether it is an academic essay or any other thesis paper, all the papers are directly or indirectly associated with one’s future. Therefore, making mistakes here means compromising with the future. However, students are fond of making some habitual errors while composing an academic paper. Let’s learn those mistakes and make sure not to repeat them in your turn.

Continue Reading